Author Admin / 2017-11-17
on Education, for class of 24th Nov.
13. Education towards future society, under climate change eraScience of Educationfrom Democracy and Education (John Dewey), Technology of Teaching (Skinner), andBehaviorism (Skinner)In behaviorism, especially verbal behaviorism, condition or environment, whencorresponding behavior is reinforced, is believed to acquire control over a probability thatthe behavior occurs. Similarly, it is believed that behavior is not transferred from onesituation to another situation, but, it simply occurs due to being exposed to similarity inenvironment (called Metaphor). Teacher plays roles of precursor to student, with manymetaphors, such as knowledge, habit, and interest. Education is more than metaphortransfer, also includes arrangement of contingencies of reinforcements: (1) occasionupon which behaviors occur, (2) behavior itself, and (3) consequence of the behavior.Thus, student are just exposed to situations or problems that can cause certainbreakthrough to the difficulties, instead of simply taking all the knowledge and solutions.For example, idea and concept of NMR brought them to the Nobel prize, but, usage ofthe NMR with them (under their control) is not something in science, in general.Education can be designed in three perspectives; (1) we learn by doing as we behaveon conditions, which we can guarantee a second behavior on the conditions. Thus,designed and/or enhanced condition is needed to evoke a habit, according to frequencytheory. (2) We learn from experience, but, experience (kind of stimulus) is followed bydoing (response/output), which is learning (education with connection). (3) We learn bytrial and error, based on behavior and consequence (education with consequence).Why do we depend on education? We do continue education as there are surely ultimateadvantages of education, for both community and individual (such as job and money).Some ultimate advantages of education can be obtained through intermediateconsequences, such as diploma and grade at graduation. There are also on-the-spotconsequences of students; negative, aversive, threat, and relatively instant reward areways to be taken, and verbal consequence (praise, scolding) may be taken to eitherprohibit or generate certain behaviors. These types of consequences bring bothreinforced behaviors beneficial to community or individual, and also by-products whichare defective. In summary, contrived reinforcers may be taken in education system, tostimulate strengthened responses (i.e., behaviors), at the risk of unwanted and defectiveby-products.It is method of Skinner in education by which some contingencies are designed andcorresponding reinforcers are contrived. If we believe his science of education, we haveto design some contingencies and contrive reinforcers which we already discussedabove. There is one example of unstable contingencies which had better be evaded,personal contingencies, such as show-off, attention-getter, and flatter. On the contrary,there is recommended one we may use in education: Natural Reinforcers, proposed byRousseau. Natural reinforcer is intrinsically away from man-made punishment andreward. It recommend to teach students independent on men, but dependent on thingsthemselves. For examples, if a window is broken, it is recommended not to scold and notto be repaired so that a harsh consequence (e.g., cold wind) is exposed to person who57broke the window, which is a natural punishment (not man-made one). John Dewey alsostressed this type of reinforcers by telling "let students learn in school as they learn intheir daily life". Natural contingencies of reinforcement occur by exposing student to anenvironment. However, nature is big, slow, trivial, useless, exhausting, harmful, anddeferred in consequence occurring, thus, teacher has to select proper contingencies forstudents to realize that consequence based on natural contingency is result of necessity,not accidental one, which is one of scientific causality (natural science necessity).Efficacy in education: It is more effective to newly design better contingencies ineducation system, using existing reinforcers, rather than to find new reinforcers. Thereare immediate and consistent reinforcements versus later reinforcements (throughmediating devices), which should be well mixed to be designed to produce effectiveeducation. We already know intermittent (but automatic) reinforcers are more effectivethan simply consistent and immediate ones; with some latter ones, students or normalpersons feel these are not rewards any longer, but just regular quotas. There are casethat reinforcers are not very effective when it is always right, when it is too easy, whenthere are too often reinforcements, and when it is not progressive.From the perspectives of students in education: Students should know and be recalledthat they are very easy to be controlled by various different reinforcers designed byteachers, schools, governments, and others. Hard working is better than not, however,hard working students may be under aversive control and threat, thus, they may studyhard to avoid great punishment of failure. Their prolonged attention is a kind of strain. Ifstudents experience (i.e., response) certain controls (either intentioned or not intentionedreinforcers), students may react to those and later behave more positively butsometimes greater negatively; when students recognize some types of controls, theymay behave automatically without any interests (indifference) as they knowcorresponding consequence and reinforcer (even aversive), and more importantly theyknow how to handle the consequences and reinforcers (they believe they can overcomethose by doing something that they believe they can achieve). This is, I believe, theworst contingency in education, for both teacher and student. For example, students whohabitually fall into a doze believe they know reinforcers exerted by teachers and schools,and they have confidence to handle and overcome to get good grades or to graduatesafely.However, it is more important for students to design some contingencies of their own,for better education, rather than to realize certain aversive controls (even it is somewhatimportant). Students are recommended to design their own rewarding program even withhumble rewards but with automatic system, if possible. For general governmentcontrolled education system, "abandon pigeon" is easy to take, thus, students arerequired to be awake to give them their own controls designed by themselves. Studentsare continuously requested to response difficult problems, under their own controls.Also, be reminded if students response, schools and other control administrators also