Articles 116

Is knowledge True?


Let's consider a case with salt for an example of the concept making, like Georg Hegel (from the book, Phenomenology of Sprit). Hegel said we observe and sense salt to be tart, white, and crystal which are the properties of it. He also said the properties are sense-certainty and immediate appearances; here, the terminology "immediate" is the opposite to "mediate." The immediate appearance (e.g., salt is tart or salt is white) can be knowledge as it is intuitive knowledge, i.e., the first knowledge. Is the first knowledge true or controversial? It may be controversial, but most likely it can be true for most of us. We can also apply this flow of intuitive sensing with different examples, such as genetically modified organism, nuclear power plant, climate change, and others.


After obtaining the first knowledge, we can proceed to analyze it to get various components out of the first appearance. We analyze the color of white or taste of tart or crystal structure further into different characteristics; the first intuitive image is then set to diverge into manifolds. We analyze it to obtain the plurality with the manifolds. The plurality should be inherent. Thus, it can be synthesized into one. The one is believed to be true by the analyzer; the analyzer perceives the plurality with manifolds to get to a true. We put a thinking process into the perceived one (as true) to thoroughly scrutinize it in a dialectic way. From the thinking, we negate it to arrive at hopefully a new appearance which has a concept of emptiness and nothingness. We can call this process as self-reflection because we negated our analyzed outcome, i.e., abstract, and we tried to come back to the original object. With the synthesized abstract (appearance) and the emptiness, we mediate through understanding to finally provide a concept which is the second knowledge. We use the 12 categorical concepts from Kant. Again, the terminology of "mediate" word is opposite to "immediate." Understanding is nothing else than mediating. If I did all of these, I believe the second knowledge to be true as I mediate it even though I use universality underlying the abstract. But, it is more controversial than the first knowledge because it is mediated (i.e., subjective) one. We can not evade the mediation process, i.e., understanding, to have any knowledge of concepts. Knowledge is like that and transmitted to others.

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